Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Health Of The Community- Public Health - 778 Words

1) Factors that Influence the Health of the Community- Public health seeks to prevent environmental conditions such as: Asbestos exposure, lead exposure, radon exposure, mercury exposure, radioactivity and radiation, ground and surface water contamination, contaminated and abandoned wells, food- borne and waterborne disease, air contamination (second- hand smoke, molds, carbon monoxide, etc.), public health nuisances (e.g., animal control, noise pollution), occupational disease (e.g., farmer s lung, hearing loss, carpal tunnel) (Nies McEwen, 2015 p. 250-268). Nurse should promote environmental conditions such as: Clean air, clean water, safe food, environmentally sound management of solid waste, hazardous substances, sewage, and land; and homes, workplaces, recreational areas, and playgrounds that are free of environmental risks. Informing the community of services offered through their local county health department can assist the community in promoting a safe environment (Nies Mc Ewen, 2015 p. 250-268). Most county health departments employ an environmental specialist in addition to nurses. Testing kits for radon, water, etc. can be obtained for a small fee may even be free in some cases. The nurse should complete an environmental assessment indicating any concerns. Concerns and/or identified issues must be reported and handled accordingly. 2) Aggregates in the Community- Public health seeks to prevent problems in child and adolescent growth and development, suchShow MoreRelatedComparison of Public and Community Health972 Words   |  4 PagesCOMPARISON OF PUBLIC AND COMMUNITY HEALTH Comparison of Public and Community Health University of Phoenix NUR/408 Michelle Hogsed July 7, 2014 . Comparison of Public and Community Health Public and community health work simultaneously as well as separately to protect the populations of the world. Public health focuses on the health of an entire nation and community health focuses on health and wellness of various communities. The World Health Organization (WHO) believesRead MorePublic Health Deals With Community Health Problems Essay819 Words   |  4 Pages1. Public Health deals with community health problems. Public health is consisted to be the forefront in preventing disease, and prolonging an individual’s life and promoting health through the systematized efforts of the organizations. Public health also handles any concerns of possible threat(s) to the public health based on population health analysis. Public health joins the interdisciplinary methods of epidemiology, biostatistics and health services, environmental health, community health, behavioralRead MoreComparison of Public and Community Health3105 Words   |  13 PagesComparison of Public and Community Health: Pertinent History and Available Resources Comparison of Public and Community Health: Pertinent History and Available Resources The terms public health and community health are oftentimes mistaken to have the same definition; however, the terms although similar have different meanings, as well as implications in application as it applies to health. Both public health and community health serve the health needs of individuals within communities; however, eachRead MorePublic Health and Healthy Communities1238 Words   |  5 PagesPublic Health agencies played a significant role in the past and continue to contribute in improving the overall health of communities through various interventions, focusing on prevention rather than treatment. These preventative measures include but are not limited to sanitizing drinking water, implementing immunizations to eradicate infectious diseases, and creating many programs that promote behaviors beneficial for a healthy community. What is a healthy community? According to the publicationRead MoreCommunity And Public Health Nursing1852 Words   |  8 PagesPosition Paper 2 Abstract The focus of this paper is to describe community and public health nursing as it pertains to the disease, Malaria. Major concepts discussed include genomics, funding, laws and legislation, community education, and the role of the public health nurse. Final Position Paper 3 Discussion Malaria is one of the â€Å"most severe public health problems worldwide† (Impact of Malaria, 2014). According to the Centers for DiseaseRead MoreThe History of Public Health and the Role of the Community/Public Health Nurse1136 Words   |  5 PagesRunning head: PUBLIC HEALTH AND ROLE OF THE COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSE 1 PUBLIC HEALTH AND ROLE OF THE COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSE 2 The History of Public Health and the Role of the Community/Public Health Nurse When considering the evolution of healthcare and the role of the nurse in the United States, many people might first consider this in the context of the hospital setting. While the history of acute care is an important area to consider, it is imperative that equal attention be givenRead MoreThe Community Action Plan For A Public Health Community Essay2179 Words   |  9 PagesHighlands Ranch Colorado, a south Denver community with population nearing 100,000 residents, is not sheltered from feeling the impact of national epidemics on both personal and professional residents. Electronic cigarettes AKA e-cigarettes, or ENDS (Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems) present a challenge for a the public health community — especially since Colorado has once again found themselves near the top of the list when the conversation points to the healthiest state in the Union. In factRead MoreComparison with Community Psychology and Public Health1055 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction The American Heritage Medical dictionary (Website one, 2007) defines community psychology (CP) as â€Å"the application of psychology to community programs for the prevention of mental health disorders and the promotion of mental health.† Public health (PH) on the other hand is defined as â€Å"the science and practice of protecting and improving the health of a community as by preventative medicine; health education; control of communicable diseases; application of sanitary measures and monitoringRead MoreComparison with Community Psychology and Public Health1049 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction The American Heritage Medical dictionary (Website one, 2007) defines community psychology (CP) as â€Å"the application of psychology to community programs for the prevention of mental health disorders and the promotion of mental health.† Public health (PH) on the other hand is defined as â€Å"the science and practice of protecting and improving the health of a community as by preventative medicine; health education; control of communicable diseases; application of sanitary measures and monitoringRead MoreA Comparison of Community Psychology and Public Health1179 Words   |  5 PagesCOMPARISON OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY AND PUBLIC HEALTH. In this assignment the key differences and similarities of community psychology and the public health approach will be examined and critically compared. Community Psychology is a branch of psychology which is concerned primarily with achieving positive mental health in the broader context of the community rather than the individual. Public health is primarily concerned and focused on changing behaviours within the context of the public in order

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

The Industrial Revolution Of The United States - 1388 Words

Orlando Quinones American history Ms. Hilderman January 29, 2015 TTP Chapter 2 After the Civil War, the United States began to enter a period of genuine prosperity and development known as industrialization. Despite the vast amount of wealth it had created, industrialization also created a considerable number of economic and social problems that became a controversial issue. The Industrial Revolution brought about tremendous significant, and extensive changes. Also its impact keeps on sweeping through individual lives today. In the last two centuries of the industrialization has changed the way we live more than any other incident in the past thousand years. The Industrial Revolution gave the nations that initially received it with the mechanical and financial preferences important to ultimately govern the majority of the world. Basically, the Industrial Revolution is a life changer for the modern world. It is what labels the world modern today. However, there is a side of the Industrial Revolution that most people do not know of. This is the cruel and harsh working conditions that the employees of the industrial era had to experience. The purpose of this chapter is to demonstrate effects that were brought upon the workers during the Industrial Revolution, contrary to Sumner’s beliefs. Industrialization, was the age of big business that flourished into what is now corporate America. As the Civil War was behind the nation and Reconstruction was taking root, manyShow MoreRelatedThe United States And The Industrial Revolution Essay2032 Words   |  9 Pagesthe 1860s and 1870s, the United States has progressed farther than was imaginable at the time. One of the greatest transformations since that time has been the United States economy. Not only has the economy changed the United States, but the entire world has changed because of the United States and how it does business. Other countries have attempted to model their economies after that of the United States. The change and revolution that has gone on in the United States from the time of the 1870sRead MoreThe United States And The Industrial Revolution1443 Words   |  6 Pagescontrol of another, is now connected more than ever. This transformation began with the Industrial Revolution in a period from around 1 760 to 1840. Thinking back to that time, we can easily think of noticeable differences between how the world was and how it is today. The United States was a small, developing country, still trying to overcome the effects of a costly revolution. Across the ocean, once the United States’ major rival, Great Britain, was still the greatest power in the world. And around theRead MoreThe Industrial Revolution Of The United States1794 Words   |  8 PagesWhen people think industrial revolution they thing factories and smoke but the revolution was so much more than that. The industrial revolution transformed manufacturing transportation and communication. The century long even took goods normally made by hand and turned them into some of the first massed produced product. . It transformed the daily lives of Americans more than any other event to ever take place in the United States of America. The industrial revolution did not take place over nightRead MoreThe United States And The Industrial Revolution1261 Words   |  6 Pagesvast changes based on the western exploration of the country as well as the industrial revolution it had undertaken. The different genres of its people all endured hardships and historic changes from the times of the Native Americans being forced out of their lands, to changes in population with the amassing amount of immigrants and lack of jobs through the Gilded Age, all the way through the change of the United States becoming an empire based on its acquisitions. But through all these events whetherRead MoreThe Industrial Revolution Of The United States1838 Words   |  8 Pagespeople think industrial revolution they thing factories and smoke but the revolution was so much more than that. The industrial revolution transformed and created major changes in not only manufacturing but transportation and communications as well. The century long even took goods normally made by hand and turned them into some of the first massed produced products. It transformed the daily lives of Americans as much as— and arguably more than—any single event in U.S. history. The industrial revolutionRead MoreThe United States Of The Industrial Revolution1720 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"Earth provides enough to satisfy every man s needs, but not every man s greed.† - Mahatma Gandhi Since the start of the Industrial Revolution the United States of America has been dependent on burning fossil fuels for energy. In 2015 nearly sixty seven percent of energy generated in the United States was from fossil fuels including coal, natural gas, and petroleum. The United States had been aware of a large abundance of natural gas in shale rock formations thousands of feet below the surface; howeverRead MoreEffects Of The Industrial Revolution On The United States1212 Words   |  5 PagesSpencer Neal Mr. Connolly US History Term Paper 10 November 2015 The Effect of the Industrial Revolution The American Industrial Revolution changed the United States residents from rural people to individuals that were exceedingly industrialized. They performed their work in processing plants and used machines. Many people took control of the Industrial Revolution such as: JP Morgan, Cornelius Vanderbilt, Andrew Carnegie, and John D. Rockefeller. These men took hold of their respective industryRead MoreImpact Of The Industrial Revolution On The United States1013 Words   |  5 PagesThe Industrial Revolution brought about an overwhelming amount of economic change to the United States. The first Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain and in Europe in the latter part of the eighteenth century and, it then spread to the United States and Germany. The Industrial Revolution itself refers to a change from hand and home production to machine and factory (Kelly). During this time period, America was growing in knowledge. The industrialization of America involved three greatRead Mor eThe Industrial Revolution in the United States: An Overview1295 Words   |  5 PagesThe Industrial Revolution, which began in England in the late 18th century, finally took effect in the United States in the years following the end of the Civil War. Industrialization had begun earlier but it was in the years known as the Gilded Age (1870-1910) that the process began in earnest in the United States (The Genesiss of Industrial America, 2007). It was during these years that individuals such as John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, and Cornelius Vanderbilt made their fortunes. DuringRead MoreThe United States Of The American Industrial Revolution857 Words   |  4 Pagesimportant globally, for the sake of brevity and personal preference, this essay will focus upon the United States of America. The proliferation of transportation systems, the refrigerator, and the telegraph were the most important developments of the American Industrial Revolution as they allowed for western expansio n and established a foundation for growth. The growth of the Industrial Revolution depended on transporting people, raw materials, and finished goods over long distances. The expansion

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Definitions of Research Essay Topics List

Definitions of Research Essay Topics List Nobody will argue that It's quite challenging to compose an academic paper if there's no structure for it. When you own a list before your eyes, it is going to be much easier to compose your mind and get started considering a specific matter. When it has to do with choosing topics for a research paper there are many options to pick from and you need something that's unique while having the ability to compose well-defined details. What's more, everything is going to be kept strictly confidential. Research Essay Topics List - Dead or Alive? Planning is crucial in any sort of home task, from creating a powerpoint presentation to supplying American Government homework help to your friend. Choosing topics for research papers can take some moment, and here are a couple of ways to help you select the one which is just perfect. Some programs nowadays are intended to teach children. Students' debts keep increasing and it's not beneficial t o constantly require them to obtain something to be able to prepare for their exams. Nurse practitioners have one of the quickest growing careers in the nation, and we have all of the info you will need to understand about what things to anticipate from nurse practitioner school. Researching any issue about government or laws may get overwhelming because of the intricacy of the issues and even due to the wording of some laws. Get the Scoop on Research Essay Topics List Before You're Too Late To utilize APA paper outline or a different style, you should read many samples of such documents. When prior brainstorming is finished, you can begin drafting your essay. Whatever research paper topic you select, be sure you can genuinely explore it and prove your point in the little quantity of space you've got. There you may learn to construct the structure and its elements. The Benefits of Research Essay Topics List Women empowerment contributes to social development 62. Together wi th a complete expert attitude our experts also place particular emphasis on the customer's expectations also. Search for what local charge of education is all about. If you're confused with a number of interesting topics to research on the web, it's far better to determine what interests you the most. You need to write a minumum of one research paper in a semester for a lot of the subjects. College students should use a suitable numbering for unique sections. Opt for the research paper topic that you're interested in. If you wish to discover topics for research paper use our website! You're now prepared to compose your very first research paper and you can't decide what things to write it on. The more you fully grasp the simpler it's for you to compose a thriving research paper. The Research Essay Topics List Cover Up The thesis will provide you with a guideline on how best to go about with writing the essay. Before you commence writing a single word of your paper, you first will need to understand what your thesis will be. On the opposite edge, the research essay topic should be one which your readers will discover easy to comprehend. Not all research paper topics are made equal, and you would like to be sure you opt for a wonderful topic before you commence writing. The cost of an essay is dependent upon the quantity of effort the writer has to exert. You should understand completely that you're not writing a descriptive essay. Easy expository essays are essays where you're anticipated to work on facts instead of opinions. Writing an excellent persuasive essay is not an easy job, however, it's achievable. Facts, Fiction and Research Essay Topics List What follows is an extensive collection of the most intriguing research topics to have you started. There are occasions when you're assigned with the topic but more frequently, you will need to create a topic on your own. There's no point if one selects a topic that isn't even understandable. As soon as you choose a specific topic, step one is to develop into an authority in the area. A great paper topic ought to be interesting and ought to incorporate an original idea or position try to prevent cliche topics which will likely bore your reader.

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

John Updikes AP Summary free essay sample

Sammys unforgettable day. Men will do Just about anything to get attention from a pretty girl. John Updikes most popular short story A P, demonstrates Just what a young guy would do in the 1960s in that position. It explains a scenario of Sammy who is the main character, quitting his Job to seem like a hero to these three beautiful young ladies who happen to visit the supermarket where he works in. What Sammy doesnt realize is that his decision to leave his Job, might have some severe out comings not Just in the present but also for his future. Just by reading the first sentence, the reader can assume that this will be an interesting story. In walk these three girls in nothing but bathing suits (Updike 1026). Sammy seems to be surprised, and amazed by these three girls who have Just walked in his store. We will write a custom essay sample on John Updikes AP Summary or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page He specifically describes the girls beauties and flaws, and compares them to common items in the supermarket (Thompson 216). First, describing one and the other in very close detail, ranking them in their look. However, concentrates more on the leader (Saldivar 217). He separates one from the hree of them. She was the queen. She kind of led them, the other two peeking around and making their shoulders round (Updike 1026). He completely forgets about his duties while being a cashier and messes up a transaction he was having with this cash-register-watchers, who gives him a hard time for ringing an item twice. Thats how astonished he was by sight of this one particular girl who he decided to call Queenie. Sammy gives a detailed observation of the girls walking throughout the store and also the store itself, clearly proving with such descriptions hat he has been working in the AP supermarket for a long time (Thompson 215). Sammy impatiently waits for the girls to be done shopping and pick a register. The whole store was like a pinball machine and I didnt know which tunnel theyd come out of (Updike 1027). For his luck the girls decide to come to him for assistance, and as they checkout it is queenie who is doing the purchase. She purchases Kingfish Fancy Herring Snacks in Pure Sour Cream (Updike 1027). And Sammy starts to wonder how she would pay for it; she didnt have a bag or wallet, her hands were empty. Still with that prim look she lifts a folded dollar bill out of the hollow at the center of her nubbled pink top. (Updike 1027). As he sees her doing this, he is completely in utter shock and surprised. And after this event, thats when the story truly does get interesting. Lengel the manager of the store, and also a church teacher walks in the store and sees the three young ladies. Girls, this isnt the beach is what Lengel says to the girls (Updike 1028). Queenie quickly responds by clearing out that her mother had sent her for the item (Saldivar 221). Sammy felt hat what he said was unnecessary and inappropriate, however he stayed quiet and watched. Once the disagreement between the girls and Lengel began, Sammy begins to think(Thompson 216). And he sees a vision of what Queenie life is, and imagines her social status. Queenie had become for Sammy a form of what he felt was power (Saldivar 221). After Lengel and the girls finish their argument, Sammy quickly bags Queenies item. As the girl begins to walk away, sammy realizes he wants to be this heroic person and immediately says l quit to Lengel quick enough or them to hear. However, the girls did not hear his heroic act, and leave the store. However, I dont think he did this because he cares about how the manager made the girls feels, but as a way to impress the girls and get someone out of it. After realizing him quitting didnt do anything for him, he still went through with hit. The manager says Sammy, you dont want to do this to your Mom and Dad, (Updike 1029) which is true he doesnt he doesnt. However Sammy admits what he is doing is dumb and ays it seems to me that once you begin a gesture its fatal not to go through with 1029). This describes Sammys regret towards his actions of quitting, and immatureness. In this story you can see how the character develops a hate toward his Job, and how he realizes he isnt going anywhere by working in this store. He also has an option of either staying or leaving, and yet he stills decides to leave, even though his attempt to get the girls attention fails And I ask to myself, what if the girls would of gone to the other cashier, would of Sammy still quit? In my opinion, I think Sammys decision to quit was foolish. Not Just because he was trying to impress girls but because he wasnt thinking of his family, and the consequences. I also agree with Lengel the manager of the store, if a girl walks into a public place with Just a bathing suit, it is like practically walking naked. The society we live in today might not care about girls walking around their bathing suits, but in the 1960s I believe something like that was never seen. I dont think that quitting his Job for some girls that he didnt even know was worth it.

Friday, April 3, 2020

Freuds Seduction Theory Essays - Psychoanalytic Theory,

Freud's Seduction Theory Freud's Seduction Theory During 1895-1896 Sigmund Freud practiced psychoanalysis by listening to his women patients weave cryptic trails down memory lane, as well as trying to decipher them. What he uncovered was that something awful and violent lay in their past. The majority of psychiatrists in this era would have deemed their patient as a hysterical liar, dismissing their memories as fantasy. Freud strayed from the norm in the sense that he believed that these women were telling the truth. Illness did not befall these women due to their ?tainted families? , but because of the atrocities they faced as children. During April of 1896 Freud scraped all the theories, case histories and experience from the depths of his consciousness and manipulated it into written form. The presentation of his ideas met with silence from his colleagues. Despite the predictions of a tarnished reputation, Freud published his newfound theories in The Aetiology of Hysteria. Its title refers to Freud's theory that the basis of all neurosis stemmed from what Freud called ?infantile sex scenes?. This namely became to be known as the ?seduction theory?, the belief that these early childhood experiences were real, not fantasy created out of hysteria, and they had long lasting effects on the adult lives of those who suffered through them. The repercussions of his ideas, both innovative and perverse, earned Freud a seat in seclusion. But as the story goes, Freud eventually came to his senses about the seduction theory and gave up his aberration by publicly retracting his study. The accepted notion is that he literally had to banish the theory from his consciousness in order to move on to his more accepted work. Joined by other physicians, over a three year span, Psychoanalysis earned respect as a therapy and science. How does an innovative idea , supported by spirit and experience , come to be a belief , and then a regret ? And in the answer, lie my intentions and hopes for this paper. I seek to prove that Freud was intrigued by cases involving child abuse, incest as well as other sexually related cases. Upon turning the last page of this paper, the reader will understand that Freud did not develop the seduction theory overnight. Moreover, a gradual impact of his studies and surroundings eventually seeped through his skull and saturated the innermost cortexes of his brain, leaving his thoughts forever changed. Freud in Paris: The beginning of an obsession? Twenty-nine year old Freud ventured on a studious trip to Paris to wrap up his medical education while working under France's leading neurologist, Jean Martin Charcot (1825-1893) at the renowned Salpetriere hospital. Freud's stay in Paris lasted from October 3, 1885 to February 28, 1896. During which, according to Jeffrey Masson, ?Freud was exposed to literature attesting to the reality and indeed the frequency of sexual abuse in early childhood (often occurring within the family); furthermore, in all probability witnessed autopsies at the Paris morgue performed on the young victims of such abuse? (15). Freud has also made insinuations towards his studies in Paris have had a tremendous impact on his later works. Freud's mentor, Jean Charcot, in collaboration with Valentin Magnan, a well known French psychiatrist-produced an article in 1882 entitled ?The Inversion of the Genital Sense and other Sexual Perversions?. The article stresses that madness being taken into account as a factor in sexual accounts. Charcot is also said to have worked with Paul Brouardel on the study of rape in small children by adults. Their work, Les attentets aux moeurs, the last in his series, Cours de medicine legale de la Faculte de Paris, focused on the rapist, instead of the victim. (Masson, 34). The book contains several case histories, all full of horror. Brouardel also conducted autopsies at the Paris morgue. Freud has written several letters expressing his enthusiasm for Brouardel's work. Through examination of the following excerpt one is assured of Freud's participation in the autopsies. Freud writes: I abandoned my occasional attempts at attending other lectures after I have become convinced that all they had to offer were for the most part well constructed rhetorical performances. The only exceptions were Professor Brouardel's forensic autopsies and lectures at the morgue, which I rarely missed. -(Studies in

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Free Essays on Comparing Cultures

Chapter Summaries – Ruggiero’s Thinking Critically About Ethical Issues Chapter 5 – Comparing Cultures - Ruggiero’s main purpose in this chapter was to examine and destroy the theory of cultural relativism, therefore opening up one’s ability to judge what others do outside their own culture. - The basic flaw in cultural relativism exists because there are so many divisions in human race and culture, to be able to classify them in any one group. - There are divisions in race, religion, sex, skin color, class level, education, location, and sexual orientation just to name a few of a seemingly endless list. - To try to solely identify oneself as American would be variable, because there are as Ruggiero lists a variety of this category; i.e. African American, Irish American, Italian American, Asian American (p.45) - The multiculturism movement is highlighted as affecting â€Å"scholarly discussion of cultures and subcultures.† (p.45) - Inside the topic, Differences Among Cultures, Ruggiero highlights the ideas that different cultures have different ideals of what is right and wrong. Some of the instances in which this is demonstrated are: monogamy and polygamy, sex before marriage, and homicide. - Attention is also given to different tribes in which they share beliefs about life which are contrary to standard western belief. Specific attention is given to the Dobu Islanders off the coast of New Guinea; within this culture the principle of living was â€Å"cheat your neighbor.† This was given a name, wabuwabu. Also mentioned is the Ik tribe, in which the central aspect of life was the self, and to do whatever was necessary to live without positive attention. Anger and pleasure in the next person’s agony was encouraged. - In Interpreting the Differences, the term cultural relativism is discussed; cultural relativists believe that it is unscholarly and wrong to judge a culture outside one’s own. They believe tha... Free Essays on Comparing Cultures Free Essays on Comparing Cultures Chapter Summaries – Ruggiero’s Thinking Critically About Ethical Issues Chapter 5 – Comparing Cultures - Ruggiero’s main purpose in this chapter was to examine and destroy the theory of cultural relativism, therefore opening up one’s ability to judge what others do outside their own culture. - The basic flaw in cultural relativism exists because there are so many divisions in human race and culture, to be able to classify them in any one group. - There are divisions in race, religion, sex, skin color, class level, education, location, and sexual orientation just to name a few of a seemingly endless list. - To try to solely identify oneself as American would be variable, because there are as Ruggiero lists a variety of this category; i.e. African American, Irish American, Italian American, Asian American (p.45) - The multiculturism movement is highlighted as affecting â€Å"scholarly discussion of cultures and subcultures.† (p.45) - Inside the topic, Differences Among Cultures, Ruggiero highlights the ideas that different cultures have different ideals of what is right and wrong. Some of the instances in which this is demonstrated are: monogamy and polygamy, sex before marriage, and homicide. - Attention is also given to different tribes in which they share beliefs about life which are contrary to standard western belief. Specific attention is given to the Dobu Islanders off the coast of New Guinea; within this culture the principle of living was â€Å"cheat your neighbor.† This was given a name, wabuwabu. Also mentioned is the Ik tribe, in which the central aspect of life was the self, and to do whatever was necessary to live without positive attention. Anger and pleasure in the next person’s agony was encouraged. - In Interpreting the Differences, the term cultural relativism is discussed; cultural relativists believe that it is unscholarly and wrong to judge a culture outside one’s own. They believe tha...

Thursday, February 20, 2020

U10a2 Life Cycle of the Stars Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

U10a2 Life Cycle of the Stars Paper - Essay Example Astronomers can determine the mass, age, chemical composition and many other properties of a star by observing its spectrum, luminosity and motion through space. The total mass of a star is the principal determinant in its evolution and eventual fate. Other characteristics of a star are determined by its evolutionary history, including diameter, rotation, movement and temperature. A plot of the temperature of many stars against their luminosities, known as a Hertzprung-Russell diagrams (H–R diagram), allows the age and evolutionary state of a star to be determined. Stellar evolution is the process by which a star undergoes a sequence of radical changes during its lifetime. Depending on the mass of the star, this lifetime ranges from only a few million years (for the most massive) to trillions of years (for the least massive, which is considerably more than the age of the universe). Stellar evolution is not studied by observing the life of a single star, as most stellar changes occur too slowly to be detected, even over many centuries. Instead, astrophysicists come to understand how stars evolve by observing numerous stars at the various points in their life, and by simulating stellar structure with computer models. Stellar Evolution: A nebula is a cloud of gas (hydrogen) and dust in space. Nebulae are the birthplaces of stars. There are different types of nebula. An Emission Nebula which glows brightly because the gas in it is energized by the stars that have already formed within it. In a Reflection Nebula, starlight reflects on the grains of dust in a nebula. The nebula surrounding the Pleiades Cluster is typical of a reflection nebula. Dark Nebula also exists. These are dense clouds of molecular hydrogen which partially or completely absorb the light from stars behind them. 1st stage of a stars life: PROTOSTAR Stellar evolution begins with the gravitational collapse of a giant molecular cloud (GMC). As it collapses, a GMC breaks into smaller and small er pieces. In each of these fragments, the collapsing gas releases gravitational potential energy as heat. As its temperature and pressure increase, a fragment condenses into a rotating sphere of superhot gas known as a prostar. Protostars with masses less than roughly 0.08Â  M (1.6?1029 kg) never reach temperatures high enough for nuclear fusion of hydrogen to begin. These are known as brown dwarfs. For a more massive prostar, the core temperature will eventually reach 10 million kelvins, initiating the proton-proton chain reaction and allowing hydrogen to fuse, first to deuterium and then to helium. The onset of nuclear fusion leads relatively quickly to a hydrostatic equilibrium in which energy released by the core exerts a "radiation pressure" balancing the weight of the star's matter, preventing further gravitational collapse. The star thus evolves rapidly to a stable state, beginning the main sequence phase of its evolution. A new star will fall at a specific point on the mai n sequence of the Hertzprung-Russell diagrams, with the main sequence spectral type depending upon the mass of the star. Small, relatively cold, low mass red dwarfs burn hydrogen slowly and will remain on the main sequence for hundreds of billions of years, while massive, hot super giants will leave the main sequence after just a few million years. A mid-sized star like the Sun will remain on the main sequence for about 10 billion years. . A star of less than about 0.5 solar mass will